MTU 2012 Biology Syllabus
Paper – 3 (Biology)
Origin of Life: Oparin's theory, Miller's Experiment, Viruses - structure, properties, distribution, classification and pathogenesis (Eg. AIDS, CANCER), Viroids & Prions, Biotic balance.
Organic Evolution: Relationship among organisms and Evidences of organic Evolution - Principles of Evolution - Lamarkism, Darwinism and Speciation.
Mechanism of Organic Evolution: Variations - Definition, causes and types, Mutations (Principles of Hugo de'veries), Role of mutations in speciation. Evolution through ages and human evolution.
Human Genetics and Eugenics: Human hereditary traits, study of Twins, A.B.O. blood groups and their inheritance, Rh-factor, Sex determination. Chromosomal aberrations, Important human syndromes, Sex linked characters and their inheritance, Applied Genetics - eugenics, euthenics, euphenics & I.Q. Test.
Applied Biology: Wild life of India - Endangered species: Biosphere Reserves, National Parks and sanctuaries, Project Tiger, Conservation of wild life, Bio-energy, Poultry, Fisheries (edible fishes), Human Population, Population explosion, problems & control. Test - Tube babies, & Amniocentasis, Application of Biotechnology in human welfare. Human Aging.
Mammalian Anatomy (Eg. Rabbit): Reproductive system (excluding embryonic development) Osteology, structure and organization of different systems.
(A) Animal Nutrition: Food, Balanced diet, Nutritional imbalances and deficiency diseases, Digestion, Absorption, Assimilation of food, (comparison between human and Rabbit).
(B) Animal Excretion and Osmoregulation: Chemical nature of excretory products in various animals, Physiology of excretion, Function of liver and kidney (Homeostatic regulatory functions of kidneys), Formation of urine, Osmoregulation by kidneys.
(C) Respiratory system: Exchange and transport of gases (O2 and Co2) factors affecting O2 and Co2 transport, Cellular respiration, different lung volumes, breathing and sound production.
(D) Nervous systems: Central, autonomic and peripheral nervous system, Receptors, Effectors, Reflexaction. Nature and conduction of Nerve- impulses, Synapse, Sense organs - Structure & working of Eye & Ear, Biochemistry of vision and taste buds.
(E) Endocrine System: Different endocrine glands and Hormones - definition, types, characteristics and their functions, (in relation to human beings), Hormonal disorders and pheromones.
(F) Circulatory System: Circulation of body fluids- Blood and lymph, Open and closed vascular systems, Structure and working physiology of Heart, Comparison between arteries and veins, Lymphatic system.
(G) Animal Diversity: Classification of Animal kingdom (Based on Storar & Eusinger), Chracteristic feature of different phyla and classes with examples.
Detailed studies of followings:
(i) Amoeba- Habit & Habitat, structure, locomotion, reproduction, Osmoregulation, Parastic amoebae - Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba gengivalis, structure, diseases caused by them and their control measures.
(ii) Plasmodium vivax-life-cycle, malaria therapy and control.
(iii) Protozoan and diseases.
(b) Porifera: A simple sponge ( Leucosolenia); Detailed study of structure & physiology, Sponge industry.
(c) Coelenterata: Hydra - Habit and Habitat, morphology, tissue differentiation in relation to physiological division of labour and regeneration.
(d) Aschelminthes: Ascaris- morphology, life-cycle, therapy and control.
(e) Annelida: Pheretima posthuma - Bionomics and economic importance.
(f) Arthropoda: (Periplanata): Structure- external and internal.
Comparison between Periplanata and Blatta.
(i) Housefly & Mosquito: structure and life – cycle
(ii) Economic importance of insets & their control.
Plant Cell: Structure & functions electron microscopic structured mitochondria, Plastids centrosomes. Lysosomes, microsomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Nucleus, Golgibodes, D.N.A & R.N.A. cytoplasm, membranes and cell wall.
Protoplasm: structure, components physical and chemical properties. Cell divison (formation) - free cell formation, Amitosis & Meosis, Duplication of D.N.A.
Ecology: Ecological factors (atmospheric, edaphic, climatic, geological & biotic factors).
Ecosystem: Structure, components of ecosystem eg. Water soluble minerals and gases, producers consumers, decomposers, Pond and forest ecosystem. Atmospheric pollution-causes and control, Types of pollution - Detergents, chemicals automobile exhaust, Radioactive matter, Smog, sound, Pesticides.
Genetics: Mendalism, Mendals experiment and law of inheritance. Modern Classification of plant kingdom- (according to ostwald & Tippo) (outline).
Seeds in angiospermic plants: description of development of angiospermic plants (life history of angiospermic plants).
Fruits: Dispersal of fruits and seeds
Cell differentiation Plant Tissue: Meristimatic classification of meritimatic & permanet tissue and functions and classification of tissue system.
Anatomy of Root, stem and leaf: difference between dicot and Monocot stem. Secondary growth of stem and root. Anatomy of hydrophytes, Xeophytes & Mesophytes.
Algae: Habitat, general characters & uses, description of ulothrix & spirogyra.
Bacteria: structure - types of nutrition, reproduction and economic importance.
Fungi: structure description of Rhizopus and yeast and their economic importance, Fermentation.
Broyophyta: structure and economic importance, description of funaria (Moss)
Pteridophyta: general structures of pteridophytes description of fern (Droypteris)
General study of gymnosperms and life history of cycas.
Classification of angiospermn,
Description of families - identification and economic importance
Cruciferae, Malvaceae, Leguminosae, compositeae, cucurbitaceae.
Absorption of water through root hairs osmosis, Translocation and Root pressure Nitrogen cycle.
Special modes of nutrition in plants (Autotrophic, heterotrophic, Parasites, saprophytes, Symbionts insectivorous and their ecological relation.
Photosynthesis: Chloroplast, light, chlorophyll and Carbon dioxide, Mechanism of photosynthesis formation of A.T.P. and their functions and importance of photosynthesis.
Transpiration: factors and importance, Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.
Respiration: aerobic, anaerobic respiration, mechanism of respiration (Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, E.T.S.)
Growth & movement: definition of growth, Region
of growth & their measurements, types of movements in plants,